FAQ - Kuponyera Mchere

FAQ

MAFUNSO AMENE AMAFUNSIDWA KAWIRIKAWIRI OKHUDZA KUPOSA KWA MINERAL

Kodi epoxy granite ndi chiyani?

Epoxy granite, yomwe imadziwikanso kuti granite yopanga, ndi chisakanizo cha epoxy ndi granite chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira ina yopangira zida zamakina.Epoxy granite imagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo mwa chitsulo chonyezimira ndi chitsulo kuti achepetse kugwedezeka kwabwino, moyo wautali wa zida, komanso kutsika mtengo kwa msonkhano.

Makina opangira zida
Zida zamakina ndi makina ena olondola kwambiri amadalira kuuma kwakukulu, kukhazikika kwanthawi yayitali, komanso mawonekedwe abwino kwambiri azinthu zoyambira pakuchita kwawo kosasunthika komanso kosunthika.Zida zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pazidazi ndi chitsulo chosungunula, zitsulo zopangidwa ndi welded, ndi granite zachilengedwe.Chifukwa cha kusowa kwa kukhazikika kwa nthawi yayitali komanso kunyowetsa bwino kwambiri, zida zopangidwa ndi zitsulo sizimagwiritsidwa ntchito kawirikawiri pamene kulondola kwakukulu kumafunika.Chitsulo chabwino chachitsulo chomwe chimachepetsera kupsinjika ndikumangika chimapangitsa kuti kapangidwe kake kakhale kokhazikika, ndipo chitha kupangidwa movutikira, koma pamafunika makina okwera mtengo kuti apange malo olondola atatha kuponya.
Mwala wabwino kwambiri wachilengedwe ukuvuta kwambiri kupeza, koma uli ndi mphamvu yonyowa kwambiri kuposa chitsulo chotayira.Apanso, monga momwe zilili ndi chitsulo chonyezimira, kukonza miyala ya granite yachilengedwe kumakhala kovutirapo komanso kokwera mtengo.

What is epoxy granite

Kuponyedwa kolondola kwa granite kumapangidwa ndi kusakaniza magulu a granite (omwe amaphwanyidwa, kutsukidwa, ndi zouma) ndi epoxy resin system pa kutentha kozungulira (ie, kuchiritsa kozizira).Quartz aggregate filler itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito pakulemba.Kugwedezeka kwa vibratory panthawi yakuumba kumanyamula zophatikiza pamodzi.
Zoyikapo ulusi, mbale zachitsulo, ndi mapaipi oziziritsa zitha kuponyedwa mkati panthawi yoponya.Kuti mukwaniritse kusinthasintha kopitilira muyeso, njanji zam'mizere, njira zoyala pansi ndi ma mounts amagalimoto zitha kubwerezedwa kapena kulowetsedwa mkati, kuchotseratu kufunikira kwa makina aliwonse a postcast.Kumapeto kwa pamwamba pa kuponyera kuli bwino ngati nkhungu pamwamba.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kwake
Ubwino ndi awa:
■ Kuchepetsa kugwedezeka.
■ Kusinthasintha: njira zama mzere, matanki amadzimadzi a hydraulic, zoyikapo ulusi, madzi odulira, ndi mapaipi a ngalande zonse zitha kuphatikizidwa ndi polima.
■ Kuphatikizidwa kwa amaika etc. amalola kwambiri yafupika Machining wa yomalizidwa kuponyera.
■ Nthawi ya msonkhano imachepetsedwa mwa kuphatikiza zigawo zingapo muzojambula kumodzi.
■ Sichifuna makulidwe a khoma lofanana, kulola kusinthasintha kwakukulu kwa maziko anu.
■ Kulimbana ndi mankhwala osungunulira, ma asidi, ma alkali, ndi madzi odulira.
■ Sichifuna kupenta.
■Zophatikizika zimakhala ndi kachulukidwe pafupifupi mofanana ndi aluminiyamu (koma zidutswa zimakhala zokhuthala kuti zikwanitse mphamvu zofanana).
■ Njira yopangira konkire ya polima imagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa kwambiri kuposa zopangira zitsulo.Ma polima opangidwa ndi ma polima amagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa kwambiri kuti apange, ndipo kuponyedwa kumachitika kutentha kutentha.
Zida za epoxy granite zimakhala ndi zonyowa zamkati mpaka khumi kuposa chitsulo chosungunuka, mpaka katatu kuposa granite wachilengedwe, komanso kuwirikiza kakhumi kuposa kapangidwe kachitsulo.Simakhudzidwa ndi zoziziritsa kukhosi, imakhala ndi kukhazikika kwanthawi yayitali, kukhazikika kwa kutentha, kulimba kwambiri komanso kulimba kwamphamvu, kuyamwa kwaphokoso kopambana, komanso kupsinjika kwamkati kosawerengeka.
Zoyipa zimaphatikizapo kutsika kwamphamvu m'zigawo zopyapyala (zosakwana 1 mu (25 mm)), kutsika kwamphamvu kwapang'onopang'ono, komanso kukana kugwedezeka kochepa.

Ubwino wa chimango cha mineral casting mwachidule

Chiyambi cha mafelemu a mineral casting

Kuponyera mchere ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zomangira zamakono zamakono.Opanga makina olondola anali m'gulu la omwe adayambitsa kugwiritsa ntchito miyala ya mineral casting.Masiku ano, kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwake pokhudzana ndi makina opangira mphero a CNC, makina osindikizira, zopukutira ndi makina otulutsa magetsi akuchulukirachulukira, ndipo zabwino zake sizimangotengera makina othamanga kwambiri.

Mineral casting, yomwe imatchedwanso epoxy granite material, imakhala ndi zodzaza mchere monga miyala, mchenga wa quartz, chakudya cha glacial ndi zomangira.Zinthuzo zimasakanizidwa molingana ndi ndondomeko yeniyeni ndikutsanulira ozizira mu zisankho.Maziko olimba ndiwo maziko a chipambano!

Zida zamakono zamakina ziyenera kuyenda mwachangu komanso mwachangu, ndikupereka zolondola kuposa kale.Komabe, kuthamanga kwapaulendo komanso makina olemetsa kwambiri amatulutsa kugwedezeka kosafunikira kwa chimango cha makina.Kugwedezeka uku kudzakhala ndi zotsatira zoyipa pamtunda, ndipo kumafupikitsa moyo wa zida.Mafelemu oponya mchere amachepetsa kugwedezeka mwachangu - pafupifupi kuwirikiza ka 6 kuposa mafelemu achitsulo komanso nthawi 10 kuposa mafelemu achitsulo.

Zida zamakina zokhala ndi mabedi oponyera mchere, monga makina amphero ndi chopukusira, ndizolondola kwambiri komanso zimakwaniritsa mawonekedwe abwinoko.Kuphatikiza apo, kuvala kwa zida kumachepetsedwa kwambiri ndipo moyo wautumiki umakulitsidwa.

 

composite mineral (epoxy granite) chimango choponya chimabweretsa zabwino zingapo:

  • Kupanga ndi mphamvu: Njira yopangira mchere imapereka ufulu wapadera wokhudzana ndi mawonekedwe a zigawozo.Makhalidwe enieni a zinthu ndi ndondomeko zimabweretsa mphamvu yofananira komanso kulemera kwambiri.
  • Kuphatikizika kwa zomangamanga: Njira yopangira mchere imathandizira kuphatikizika kosavuta kwa kapangidwe kake ndi zinthu zina zowonjezera monga njira zowongolera, zoyikapo ulusi ndi kulumikizana kwa mautumiki, panthawi yomwe akuponya.
  • Kupanga kwamakina ovuta: Zomwe sizingachitike ndi njira wamba zimakhala zotheka ndi kuponyera mchere: Zigawo zingapo zitha kusonkhanitsidwa kuti zipange zovuta pogwiritsa ntchito zida zomangira.
  • Kulondola pazachuma: Nthawi zambiri zigawo za mchere zimayikidwa momaliza chifukwa palibe kutsika komwe kumachitika pakaumitsa.Ndi izi, njira zina zomaliza zodula zitha kuthetsedwa.
  • Kusamalitsa: Kufotokozera molondola kwambiri kapena malo othandizira kumatheka powonjezera kugaya, kupanga kapena mphero.Chifukwa cha izi, malingaliro ambiri amakina amatha kukhazikitsidwa mwaluso komanso mogwira mtima.
  • Kukhazikika kwamafuta abwino: Kuponyedwa kwa mchere kumachita pang'onopang'ono kusintha kwa kutentha chifukwa matenthedwe amatenthetsa kwambiri kuposa zida zachitsulo.Pachifukwa ichi kusintha kwa kutentha kwakanthawi kochepa sikukhudza kwambiri kulondola kwa makina a makina.Kukhazikika kwabwino kwa kutentha kwa bedi la makina kumatanthauza kuti geometry yonse yamakina imasamaliridwa bwino, chifukwa chake, zolakwika za geometric zimachepetsedwa.
  • Palibe dzimbiri: Zida zopangira mamineral zimalimbana ndi mafuta, zoziziritsa kukhosi ndi zakumwa zina zaukali.
  • Kugwedera kwakukuru kwa moyo wautumiki wa zida zazitali: kuyika kwathu kwa mchere kumafika mpaka 10x pamiyendo yabwinoko yakugwedera kuposa chitsulo kapena chitsulo chotayira.Chifukwa cha mawonekedwe awa, kukhazikika kwamphamvu kwambiri kwamakina kumapezedwa.Ubwino womwe izi zili nawo kwa opanga zida zamakina ndi ogwiritsa ntchito ndizodziwikiratu: kumalizidwa bwino kwapamwamba kwa zida zamakina kapena zapansi komanso moyo wautali wa zida zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zida zotsika mtengo.
  • Chilengedwe: Kuwonongeka kwa chilengedwe pakupanga kumachepa.

Chimango choponyera mamineral vs chimango chachitsulo

Onani pansipa maubwino amtundu wathu watsopano wa mineral casting vs cast iron womwe udagwiritsidwa ntchito kale:

  Kuponya Mchere (Epoxy Granite) Kuponya Chitsulo
Damping Wapamwamba Zochepa
Kutentha Magwiridwe Low kutentha madutsidwe

ndi high spec.kutentha

mphamvu

High kutentha madutsidwe ndi

mtengo wotsika.kutentha mphamvu

Magawo Ophatikizidwa Zopanda malire kapangidwe ndi

Chigawo chimodzi nkhungu ndi

mgwirizano wopanda malire

Machining zofunika
Kukaniza kwa Corrosion Mkulu kwambiri Zochepa
Zachilengedwe

Ubwenzi

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu kwambiri

 

Mapeto

Kuponyedwa kwa mchere ndikwabwino pamapangidwe athu a makina a CNC.Limapereka maubwino omveka bwino aukadaulo, azachuma komanso zachilengedwe.Ukadaulo woponyera mamineral umapereka kugwetsa kwabwino kwambiri kwa kugwedezeka, kukana kwamphamvu kwamankhwala komanso zabwino zambiri zamatenthedwe (kukula kwamafuta kofanana ndi chitsulo).Zinthu zolumikizira, zingwe, sensa ndi njira zoyezera zimatha kutsanuliridwa pamsonkhanowo.

Kodi maubwino a mineral casting granite bed Machining Center ndi chiyani?

Kodi maubwino a mineral casting granite bed Machining Center ndi chiyani?
Ma mineral castings (opangidwa ndi anthu opangidwa ndi granite aka resin konkire) akhala akuvomerezedwa kwambiri mumakampani opanga zida zamakina kwazaka zopitilira 30 ngati zinthu zomangika.

Malinga ndi ziwerengero, ku Europe, chimodzi mwa zida 10 zamakina zimagwiritsa ntchito miyala ya mchere ngati bedi.Komabe, kugwiritsa ntchito chidziwitso chosayenera, chidziwitso chosakwanira kapena cholakwika kungayambitse kukayikira ndi tsankho motsutsana ndi Mineral Castings.Choncho, popanga zipangizo zatsopano, m'pofunika kufufuza ubwino ndi zovuta za mineral castings ndikuziyerekezera ndi zipangizo zina.

Pansi pamakina omanga nthawi zambiri amagawidwa kukhala chitsulo chopangidwa ndi chitsulo, mineral casting (polymer ndi/kapena reactive resin konkriti), chitsulo / chotchinga (grouting/non-grouting) ndi miyala yachilengedwe (monga granite).Chilichonse chili ndi mawonekedwe ake, ndipo palibe chomangira changwiro.Pokhapokha poyang'ana ubwino ndi kuipa kwa zinthuzo malinga ndi zofunikira zenizeni zapangidwe, zikhoza kusankhidwa bwino.

Ntchito ziwiri zofunika za zida zamapangidwe - kutsimikizira mayamwidwe a geometry, malo ndi mphamvu ya zigawo, motsatana zimayika zofunikira pakuchita (static, dynamic and thermal performance), magwiridwe antchito / kapangidwe kake (kulondola, kulemera, makulidwe a khoma, kumasuka kwa njanji zowongolera) pakuyika zida, makina osindikizira atolankhani, mayendedwe) ndi zofunikira zamtengo (mtengo, kuchuluka, kupezeka, mawonekedwe adongosolo).
I. Zofunikira pazantchito zamapangidwe

1. Makhalidwe osasunthika

Chiyerekezo choyezera zinthu zokhazikika za maziko nthawi zambiri ndi kuuma kwa zinthu-kuchepa kwapang'onopang'ono pansi pa katundu, osati mphamvu zambiri.Pamapindika osasunthika, ma mineral castings amatha kuganiziridwa kuti ndi zinthu zomwe zimatsatira malamulo a Hooke.

Kachulukidwe ndi zotanuka modulus ya mineral castings motsatana ndi 1/3 ya chitsulo chotayidwa.Popeza miyala yamtengo wapatali ndi zitsulo zotayira zimakhala ndi kuuma kwapadera komweko, pansi pa kulemera komweko, kukhazikika kwazitsulo zachitsulo ndi kuponyedwa kwa mchere kumakhala kofanana popanda kuganizira kukhudzidwa kwa mawonekedwe.Nthawi zambiri, makulidwe a khoma la makulidwe a mineral castings nthawi zambiri amakhala 3 kuwirikiza kwa chitsulo, ndipo kapangidwe kameneka sikungabweretse vuto lililonse pankhani yamakina azinthu kapena kuponyera.Zopangira mchere ndizoyenera kugwirira ntchito pamalo osasunthika omwe amanyamula kupanikizika (monga mabedi, zothandizira, mizati) ndipo sizoyenera ngati mafelemu opyapyala komanso/kapena mafelemu ang'onoang'ono (monga matebulo, mapaleti, zosinthira zida, ngolo, zothandizira zopota).Kulemera kwa magawo omangika nthawi zambiri kumachepetsedwa ndi zida za opanga ma mineral cast, ndipo zinthu zopangira mchere pamwamba pa matani 15 nthawi zambiri zimakhala zosowa.

2. Makhalidwe amphamvu

Kuthamanga kwakukulu kozungulira komanso / kapena kuthamanga kwa shaft, ndikofunikira kwambiri kuti makinawo azigwira ntchito mwamphamvu.Kuyika mwachangu, kusinthira zida mwachangu, komanso chakudya chothamanga kwambiri kumalimbitsa kumveka kwamakina komanso kusangalatsa kwamphamvu kwamagawo amakina.Kuphatikiza pa kapangidwe ka gawo la gawoli, kupotoza, kugawa kwakukulu, ndi kuuma kwamphamvu kwa gawoli kumakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi kunyowa kwa zinthuzo.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mineral castings kumapereka njira yabwino yothetsera mavutowa.Chifukwa imatenga kugwedezeka ka 10 kuposa chitsulo chachikhalidwe, imatha kuchepetsa matalikidwe ndi ma frequency achilengedwe.

M'machitidwe opangira makina monga makina, amatha kubweretsa kulondola kwambiri, mawonekedwe abwino a pamwamba, komanso moyo wautali wa zida.Panthawi imodzimodziyo, pokhudzana ndi phokoso la phokoso, ma mineral castings adachitanso bwino poyerekezera ndi kutsimikiziranso zapansi, ma transmission castings ndi zipangizo zosiyanasiyana za injini zazikulu ndi ma centrifuges.Malinga ndi kusanthula kwamphamvu kwamawu, kuponyedwa kwa mchere kumatha kuchepetsedwa ndi 20% pamlingo wamphamvu wamawu.

3. Thermal katundu

Akatswiri amayerekeza kuti pafupifupi 80% yapatuka kwa zida zamakina kumachitika chifukwa cha kutentha.Kusokoneza ndondomeko monga magwero a kutentha kwa mkati kapena kunja, kutentha, kusintha ma workpieces, ndi zina zotero ndizo zimayambitsa kutentha kwa kutentha.Kuti muthe kusankha zinthu zabwino kwambiri, m'pofunika kufotokozera zofunikira zakuthupi.Kutentha kwapadera komanso kutsika kwamafuta kumapangitsa kuti mchere uzikhala ndi kutentha kwanthawi yayitali (monga kusintha kwa zida zogwirira ntchito) komanso kusinthasintha kwa kutentha kwapakati.Ngati kutentha kwachangu kumafunika ngati bedi lachitsulo kapena kutentha kwa bedi ndikoletsedwa, zida zotenthetsera kapena zoziziritsa zitha kuponyedwa mwachindunji muzoponya zamchere kuti ziwongolere kutentha.Kugwiritsa ntchito mtundu uwu wa chipangizo cholipirira kutentha kumatha kuchepetsa kupindika komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha kutentha, komwe kumathandiza kuwongolera kulondola pamtengo wokwanira.

 

II.Zofunikira pakugwirira ntchito komanso kapangidwe kake

Umphumphu ndi chinthu chosiyanitsa chomwe chimasiyanitsa mineral castings ndi zipangizo zina.Kutentha kwakukulu kwa kuponyera kwa mineral castings ndi 45 ° C, ndipo pamodzi ndi nkhungu zapamwamba kwambiri ndi zida, zigawo ndi mineral castings zikhoza kuponyedwa pamodzi.

Njira zapamwamba zoponyanso zitha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito pazosowa zopangira mchere, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale malo okwera bwino komanso njanji omwe safuna makina.Monga zida zina zoyambira, ma mineral castings amatsatiridwa ndi malamulo enaake apangidwe.Makulidwe a khoma, zida zonyamula katundu, zoyika nthiti, kutsitsa ndi kutsitsa njira zonse ndizosiyana ndi zida zina mpaka pamlingo wina, ndipo ziyenera kuganiziridwa pasadakhale pakukonza.

 

III.Zofunika mtengo

Ngakhale kuli kofunika kulingalira kuchokera ku luso lamakono, kugwiritsira ntchito ndalama kumawonetsa kufunikira kwake.Kugwiritsa ntchito ma mineral castings kumathandizira mainjiniya kupulumutsa ndalama zopangira komanso zogwirira ntchito.Kuphatikiza pa kupulumutsa pamitengo yopangira makina, kuponyera, kusonkhanitsa komaliza, ndi kuonjezera ndalama zogulira (zosungiramo zinthu ndi zoyendera) zonse zimachepetsedwa moyenerera.Poganizira ntchito yapamwamba ya mineral castings, iyenera kuwonedwa ngati ntchito yonse.M'malo mwake, ndizomveka kupanga kufananitsa kwamtengo pomwe mazikowo adayikidwa kapena kukhazikitsidwa kale.Mtengo woyambira wokwera kwambiri ndi mtengo wa nkhungu zopangira mchere ndi zida, koma mtengowu ukhoza kuchepetsedwa pogwiritsidwa ntchito kwanthawi yayitali (500-1000 zidutswa / nkhungu zachitsulo), ndipo kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwapachaka kumakhala pafupifupi 10-15 zidutswa.

 

IV.Kuchuluka kwa ntchito

Monga zida zomangika, ma mineral castings akusintha mosalekeza zida zamapangidwe, ndipo chinsinsi chakukula kwake mwachangu chimakhala pakuponyedwa kwa mchere, nkhungu, ndi zomangira zokhazikika.Pakalipano, kuponyedwa kwa mchere kumagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'madera ambiri a zida zamakina monga makina opera ndi makina othamanga kwambiri.Opanga makina ogaya akhala apainiya m'gawo la zida zamakina pogwiritsa ntchito ma mineral castings pamabedi amakina.Mwachitsanzo, makampani odziwika padziko lonse lapansi monga ABA z&b, Bahmler, Jung, Mikrosa, Schaudt, Stude, etc. akhala akupindula ndi kunyowetsa, kutentha kwa kutentha ndi kukhulupirika kwa mineral castings kuti apeze mwatsatanetsatane komanso khalidwe labwino kwambiri lapamwamba pogaya. .

Ndi katundu wochulukirachulukira nthawi zonse, kuponyedwa kwa mchere kumakondedwanso kwambiri ndi makampani otsogola padziko lonse lapansi pantchito yopukusira zida.Bedi la mineral casting limakhala lolimba kwambiri ndipo limatha kuthetsa mphamvu yomwe imabwera chifukwa cha mathamangitsidwe amtundu wamoto.Nthawi yomweyo, kuphatikiza kwachilengedwe kwa magwiridwe antchito abwino a kugwedera ndi mota yama liniya kumatha kusintha kwambiri mawonekedwe amtundu wa workpiece ndi moyo wautumiki wa gudumu lopera.

Kodi kukula kwakukulu komwe ZhongHui angapange ndi chiyani?

Ponena za gawo limodzi.Mkati mwa 10000mm kutalika ndizosavuta kwa ife.

Kodi makulidwe a khoma a mineral casting ndi otani?

Kodi makulidwe ochepa a khoma ndi otani?

Nthawi zambiri, makulidwe ochepera a makina oyambira ayenera kukhala osachepera 60mm.Zigawo zowonda (mwachitsanzo 10mm zokhuthala) zitha kuponyedwa ndi makulidwe abwino komanso mawonekedwe.

Kodi mawotchi anu opangira mchere angakhale olondola bwanji?

Mlingo wa shrinkage mutathira ndi pafupifupi 0.1-0.3mm pa 1000mm.Pamene mawotchi amtundu wa mchere amafunikira, kulolerana kungathe kutheka ndi kugaya kwachiwiri kwa cnc, kupukusa manja, kapena njira zina za Machining.

Chifukwa chiyani tiyenera kusankha ZhongHui Mineral Casting?

Zinthu zathu zoponya Mineral ndikusankha chilengedwe Jinan Black granite.Makampani ambiri amangosankha granite wamba kapena mwala wamba pomanga nyumba.

· Zida zopangira: zokhala ndi zida zapadera za Jinan Black Granite (zomwe zimatchedwanso 'JinanQing' granite) tinthu tating'onoting'ono, todziwika padziko lonse lapansi chifukwa champhamvu kwambiri, kulimba kwambiri komanso kukana kuvala kwambiri;

· Fomula: yokhala ndi ma epoxy resins ndi zowonjezera zapadera, zigawo zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mosiyanasiyana kuwonetsetsa kuti magwiridwe antchito akwaniritsidwa;

- Zimango: mayamwidwe akugwedezeka amakhala pafupifupi nthawi 10 kuposa chitsulo chosungunuka, zinthu zabwino zokhazikika komanso zosunthika;

· Thupi katundu: kachulukidwe ndi za 1/3 chitsulo choponyedwa, apamwamba matenthedwe chotchinga katundu kuposa zitsulo, osati hygroscopic, wabwino matenthedwe bata;

· Chemical katundu: apamwamba dzimbiri kukana kuposa zitsulo, wochezeka chilengedwe;

Kulondola kwenikweni: kutsika kwa mzere pambuyo poponya kumakhala pafupifupi 0.1-0.3㎜/m, mawonekedwe apamwamba kwambiri komanso kulondola kwa ndege zonse;

· Kukhazikika kwamapangidwe: mawonekedwe ovuta kwambiri amatha kuponyedwa, pomwe kugwiritsa ntchito granite zachilengedwe nthawi zambiri kumafuna kusonkhanitsa, kuphatikizika ndi kumangiriza;

• Kutentha kwapang'onopang'ono: kumakhudzidwa ndi kusintha kwa kutentha kwakanthawi kochepa komanso kocheperako;

· Zoyikapo: zomangira, mapaipi, zingwe ndi zipinda zitha kuphatikizidwa mu kapangidwe kake, kuyika zida kuphatikiza zitsulo, miyala, ceramic ndi pulasitiki etc.

MUKUFUNA KUGWIRA NTCHITO NAFE?