FAQ - Precision Metal

FAQ

MAFUNSO AMENE AMAFUNSA KAWIRIKAWIRI

1. Kodi makina olondola ndi chiyani?

Precision Machining ndi njira yochotsera zinthu kuchokera pachinthu chogwirira ntchito pogwira zomaliza zololera.Makina olondola ali ndi mitundu yambiri, kuphatikiza mphero, kutembenuza ndi kutulutsa magetsi.Makina olondola masiku ano nthawi zambiri amayendetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito Computer Numerical Controls (CNC).

Pafupifupi zinthu zonse zachitsulo zimagwiritsa ntchito makina olondola, monganso zida zina zambiri monga pulasitiki ndi matabwa.Makinawa amayendetsedwa ndi akatswiri apadera komanso ophunzitsidwa bwino.Kuti chida chodulira chigwire ntchito yake, chimayenera kusunthidwa molunjika kuti chidulidwe bwino.Kuyenda koyambirira kumeneku kumatchedwa "kudula liwiro."The workpiece angathenso kusunthidwa, wotchedwa kusuntha yachiwiri "chakudya."Pamodzi, kusuntha uku ndi kuthwa kwa chida chodulira kumalola makina olondola kuti azigwira ntchito.

Makina olondola kwambiri amafunikira kutha kutsatira mapulani enieni opangidwa ndi CAD (mapangidwe othandizira makompyuta) kapena mapulogalamu a CAM (kupanga mothandizidwa ndi makompyuta) monga AutoCAD ndi TurboCAD.Pulogalamuyi imatha kuthandizira kupanga zovuta, zojambula za 3-dimensional kapena maupangiri ofunikira kuti apange chida, makina kapena chinthu.Zolemba izi ziyenera kutsatiridwa mwatsatanetsatane kuti zitsimikizire kuti chinthucho chikusunga kukhulupirika kwake.Ngakhale makampani opanga makina olondola amagwira ntchito ndi mitundu ina ya mapulogalamu a CAD/CAM, amagwirabe ntchito nthawi zambiri ndi zojambula zojambulidwa ndi manja m'magawo oyamba a mapangidwe.

Makina olondola amagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zingapo kuphatikiza chitsulo, mkuwa, graphite, magalasi ndi mapulasitiki kutchulapo zochepa.Malingana ndi kukula kwa polojekitiyo ndi zipangizo zomwe zidzagwiritsidwe ntchito, zida zosiyanasiyana zopangira makina zidzagwiritsidwa ntchito.Kuphatikizika kulikonse kwa lathes, makina amphero, makina obowola, macheka ndi ma grinders, ngakhale ma robotiki othamanga kwambiri angagwiritsidwe ntchito.Makampani opanga zinthu zakuthambo angagwiritse ntchito makina othamanga kwambiri, pamene makampani opanga zida zamatabwa angagwiritse ntchito kujambula zithunzi ndi mphero.Kuthamanga kwa liwiro, kapena kuchuluka kwa chinthu china chilichonse, kumatha kukhala masauzande, kapena kukhala ochepa.Kukonzekera kolondola nthawi zambiri kumafuna kukonza zida za CNC kutanthauza kuti zimayendetsedwa ndi manambala apakompyuta.Chipangizo cha CNC chimalola miyeso yeniyeni kuti itsatidwe panthawi yonse ya chinthu.

2. Kodi mphero ndi chiyani?

Kugaya ndi njira yopangira makina ogwiritsira ntchito ocheka ozungulira kuti achotse zinthu kuchokera ku chogwirira ntchito popititsa patsogolo (kapena kudyetsa) choduliracho kumalo ogwirira ntchito.Wodulirayo amathanso kugwiridwa pakona yogwirizana ndi axis ya chida.Kugaya kumagwira ntchito zosiyanasiyana ndi makina osiyanasiyana, pamasikelo kuyambira pazigawo zing'onozing'ono kupita kumagulu akuluakulu, olemetsa kwambiri.Ndi imodzi mwazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri popanga magawo achikhalidwe kuti agwirizane bwino.

Kugaya kumatha kuchitidwa ndi zida zambiri zamakina.Gulu loyambirira la zida zamakina pogaya linali makina opera (nthawi zambiri amatchedwa mphero).Kutabwera kwa makompyuta owongolera manambala (CNC), makina ophera adasanduka malo opangira makina: makina opangira mphero omwe amawonjezedwa ndi osintha zida, magazini a zida kapena ma carousel, kuthekera kwa CNC, makina oziziritsa, ndi zotsekera.Malo opangira mphero nthawi zambiri amagawidwa ngati vertical Machining Center (VMCs) kapena horizontal Machining Center (HMCs).

Kuphatikizika kwa mphero kukhala malo osinthika, ndi mosemphanitsa, kunayamba ndi zida zamoyo zopangira lathes komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mphero nthawi ndi nthawi potembenuza ntchito.Izi zidapangitsa kuti pakhale gulu latsopano la zida zamakina, makina ochitira zinthu zambiri (MTMs), omwe amapangidwa kuti athandizire mphero ndikutembenuza mkati mwa envulopu yogwira ntchito yomweyo.

3. Kodi mwatsatanetsatane CNC Machining?

Kwa mainjiniya opanga, magulu a R&D, ndi opanga omwe amadalira kusaka kwa magawo, makina olondola a CNC amalola kupanga magawo ovuta popanda kukonzanso kowonjezera.M'malo mwake, makina olondola a CNC nthawi zambiri amapangitsa kuti magawo omalizidwa apangidwe pamakina amodzi.
Njira yopangira makina imachotsa zinthu ndikugwiritsa ntchito zida zambiri zodulira kuti apange chomaliza, ndipo nthawi zambiri chovuta kwambiri, kapangidwe ka gawo.Mlingo wolondola umakulitsidwa pogwiritsa ntchito makina owongolera manambala apakompyuta (CNC), omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwongolera zida zamakina.

Udindo wa "CNC" mu Machining mwatsatanetsatane
Pogwiritsa ntchito malangizo opangira ma coded, makina olondola a CNC amalola chogwirira ntchito kuti chidulidwe ndikuwumbidwa mosiyanasiyana popanda kulowererapo pamanja ndi woyendetsa makina.
Kutenga mtundu wothandizidwa ndi makompyuta (CAD) woperekedwa ndi kasitomala, katswiri wamakina amagwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu othandizira makompyuta (CAM) kupanga malangizo opangira gawolo.Kutengera mtundu wa CAD, pulogalamuyo imasankha zida zomwe zikufunika ndikupanga khodi yamapulogalamu yomwe imauza makinawo:
■ Kodi ma RPM olondola ndi ma feed atani
Nthawi ndi malo osunthira chida ndi/kapena chogwirira ntchito
■ Kudula kozama bwanji
Nthawi yopaka zoziziritsa kukhosi
Zina zilizonse zokhudzana ndi liwiro, kuchuluka kwa chakudya, ndi kulumikizana
Woyang'anira CNC ndiye amagwiritsa ntchito manambala apulogalamu kuti aziwongolera, kusintha makina, ndikuyang'anira kayendedwe ka makinawo.
Masiku ano, CNC ndi chinthu chopangidwa ndi zipangizo zosiyanasiyana, kuchokera ku lathes, mphero, ndi ma routers kupita ku waya EDM (magetsi otulutsa magetsi), laser, ndi makina odulira plasma.Kuphatikiza pakupanga makina opangira makina komanso kukulitsa kulondola, CNC imachotsa ntchito zamanja ndikumasula akatswiri kuti aziyang'anira makina angapo omwe akugwira ntchito nthawi imodzi.
Kuphatikiza apo, njira yopangira zida ikapangidwa ndipo makinawo adakonzedwa, amatha kugwira ntchito kangapo konse.Izi zimapereka mlingo wapamwamba wolondola komanso wobwerezabwereza, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ntchitoyi ikhale yotsika mtengo komanso yowonjezereka.

Zinthu zopangidwa ndi makina
Zitsulo zina zomwe nthawi zambiri zimapangidwa ndi aluminium, mkuwa, bronze, mkuwa, chitsulo, titaniyamu, ndi zinki.Kuphatikiza apo, matabwa, thovu, fiberglass, ndi mapulasitiki monga polypropylene amathanso kupanga makina.
M'malo mwake, pafupifupi chilichonse chitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi makina olondola a CNC - kutengera momwe amagwiritsira ntchito komanso zofunikira zake.

Ubwino wina wa makina olondola a CNC
Pazigawo zing'onozing'ono ndi zigawo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zambiri zopangidwa, kulondola kwa CNC Machining nthawi zambiri kumakhala njira yopangira chisankho.
Monga momwe zilili ndi pafupifupi njira zonse zodulira ndi makina, zida zosiyanasiyana zimagwira ntchito mosiyana, ndipo kukula ndi mawonekedwe a chigawocho zimakhudzanso kwambiri ntchitoyi.Komabe, mwachizoloŵezi, makina olondola a CNC amapereka ubwino pa njira zina zopangira makina.
Ndi chifukwa makina a CNC amatha kupereka:
■ Kuvuta kwapang'ono kwambiri
■ Kulekerera kolimba, kuyambira ±0.0002" (±0.00508 mm) mpaka ±0.0005" (±0.0127 mm)
■ Zomaliza zosalala bwino, kuphatikiza zomaliza mwamakonda
■ Kubwerezabwereza, ngakhale pamavoliyumu apamwamba
Ngakhale katswiri wamakina amatha kugwiritsa ntchito lathe pamanja kupanga gawo labwino mu kuchuluka kwa 10 kapena 100, chimachitika ndi chiyani mukafuna magawo 1,000?10,000 magawo?100,000 kapena miliyoni magawo?
Ndi makina olondola a CNC, mutha kupeza scalability ndi liwiro lofunikira pakupanga kwamtundu uwu.Kuphatikiza apo, kubwereza kwapamwamba kwa makina olondola a CNC kumakupatsani magawo omwe ali ofanana kuyambira koyambira mpaka kumapeto, ngakhale mukupanga magawo angati.

4. Momwe zimachitikira: ndi njira ndi zida ziti zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga makina olondola?

Pali njira zina zapadera kwambiri za CNC Machining, kuphatikizapo waya EDM (machining electro discharge Machining), machining zowonjezera, ndi 3D laser kusindikiza.Mwachitsanzo, mawaya a EDM amagwiritsa ntchito zida zoyendetsera - nthawi zambiri zitsulo -- ndi zotulutsa zamagetsi kuti ziwononge chogwirira ntchito kukhala chowoneka bwino.
Komabe, apa tiyang'ana pa mphero ndi kutembenuza njira - njira ziwiri zochepetsera zomwe zimapezeka kwambiri komanso zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mobwerezabwereza pakukonza makina a CNC.

Kugaya motsutsana ndi kutembenuka
Kugaya ndi njira yopangira makina omwe amagwiritsa ntchito chida chozungulira, chozungulira chozungulira kuti achotse zinthu ndikupanga mawonekedwe.Zida zopangira mphero, zomwe zimadziwika kuti mphero kapena malo opangira makina, zimakwaniritsa chilengedwe cha magawo ovuta a geometri pazinthu zazikuluzikulu zopangidwa ndi zitsulo.
Chikhalidwe chofunikira cha mphero ndikuti chogwirira ntchito chimakhala chokhazikika pomwe chida chodulira chimazungulira.Mwa kuyankhula kwina, pa mphero, chida chodulira chozungulira chimayenda mozungulira chogwirira ntchito, chomwe chimakhalabe chokhazikika pabedi.
Kutembenuza ndi njira yodula kapena kupanga chogwirira ntchito pazida zotchedwa lathe.Nthawi zambiri, lathe imazungulira chogwirira ntchito panjira yoyima kapena yopingasa pomwe chida chodulira chokhazikika (chomwe mwina sichingazungulire) chimayenda motsatira nsonga yokhazikika.
Chidacho sichingayende mozungulira gawolo.Zinthuzo zimazungulira, zomwe zimalola chida kuti chigwire ntchito zomwe zakonzedwa.(Pali kagawo kakang'ono kamene kali ndi zida zomwe zimayenda mozungulira waya wodyetsedwa ndi spool, komabe, zomwe sizinaphimbidwe apa.)
Mosiyana, mosiyana ndi mphero, workpiece imazungulira.Chigawocho chimatembenukira pa spindle ya lathe ndipo chida chodulira chimalumikizidwa ndi chogwirira ntchito.

Manual vs. CNC Machining
Ngakhale kuti mphero ndi lathes zilipo mu zitsanzo zamanja, makina a CNC ndi oyenerera pazigawo zing'onozing'ono zopangira - kupereka scalability ndi kubwerezabwereza kwa ntchito zomwe zimafuna kupanga voliyumu yayikulu ya zigawo zolimba zololera.
Kuphatikiza pakupereka makina osavuta a 2-axis momwe chidacho chimayenda mu X ndi Z, zida zolondola za CNC zimaphatikizansopo mitundu yamitundu yambiri momwe chogwirira ntchito chimathanso kusuntha.Izi zikusiyana ndi lathe pomwe workpiece imangokhala yozungulira ndipo zida zidzasuntha kuti apange geometry yomwe mukufuna.
Mapangidwe amitundu yambiri amalola kupanga ma geometries ovuta kwambiri pa ntchito imodzi, popanda kufunikira ntchito yowonjezera ndi woyendetsa makina.Izi sizimangopangitsa kuti zikhale zosavuta kupanga zigawo zovuta, komanso zimachepetsa kapena kuthetsa mwayi wolakwitsa woyendetsa.
Kuphatikiza apo, kugwiritsa ntchito zoziziritsa kukhosi zokhala ndi makina olondola a CNC kumawonetsetsa kuti tchipisi zisalowe m'ntchito, ngakhale mutagwiritsa ntchito makina okhala ndi chopota chozungulira.

Zithunzi za CNC
Makina osiyanasiyana amphero amasiyana makulidwe ake, masinthidwe a ma axis, mitengo yazakudya, liwiro lodulira, momwe amadyera mphero, ndi zina.
Komabe, nthawi zambiri, mphero za CNC zonse zimagwiritsa ntchito ulusi wozungulira kuti uchotse zinthu zosafunikira.Amagwiritsidwa ntchito podula zitsulo zolimba monga chitsulo ndi titaniyamu koma amathanso kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zinthu monga pulasitiki ndi aluminiyamu.
Zigayo za CNC zimapangidwira kuti zizibwerezabwereza ndipo zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pachilichonse kuyambira pakujambula mpaka kupanga voliyumu yayikulu.High-mapeto mwatsatanetsatane CNC mphero nthawi zambiri ntchito zolimba kulolerana ntchito monga mphero faini amafa ndi nkhungu.
Ngakhale mphero ya CNC imatha kubweretsa kusintha mwachangu, kutsirizitsa ngati-milled kumapanga magawo okhala ndi zida zowoneka.Itha kutulutsanso magawo okhala ndi m'mbali zakuthwa ndi ma burrs, kotero njira zowonjezera zitha kufunikira ngati m'mphepete ndi ma burrs ndizosavomerezeka pazinthuzo.
Zachidziwikire, zida zowonongera zomwe zidakonzedwa motsatizanazi zidzawonongeka, ngakhale nthawi zambiri zimakwaniritsa 90% yazofunikira, ndikusiya zina kuti mumalize.
Ponena za kutha kwa pamwamba, pali zida zomwe sizidzangotulutsa zovomerezeka zokhazokha, komanso galasi lokhala ngati galasi pazigawo za ntchito.

Mitundu ya CNC mphero
Mitundu iwiri yoyambira yamakina opangira mphero imadziwika ngati malo opangira makina osunthika komanso malo opangira makina opingasa, pomwe kusiyana kwakukulu kuli pamayendedwe a spindle ya makina.
Malo opangira makina oyima ndi mphero momwe nsonga ya spindle imalumikizidwa ku Z-axis.Makina oyimirira awa amatha kugawidwa m'mitundu iwiri:
■ Mphero za bedi, momwe spindle imayendera molingana ndi olamulira ake pomwe tebulo limayenda molunjika kumtunda wa spindle.
■ Turret mphero, momwe spindle imayima ndipo tebulo limasunthidwa kuti nthawi zonse lizikhala lozungulira komanso lofanana ndi olamulira a spindle panthawi yodulira.
Pamalo opangira makina opingasa, nsonga ya spindle ya mphero imalumikizidwa ku Y-axis.Mapangidwe opingasa amatanthauza kuti mpherozi zimakonda kutenga malo ochulukirapo pa malo ogulitsira makina;amakhalanso olemera kwambiri komanso amphamvu kwambiri kuposa makina oima.
Mphero yopingasa imagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri pakafunika kumaliza bwino pamwamba;ndichifukwa choti kupendekera kwa spindle kumatanthauza kuti tchipisi todulira timagwa mwachibadwa ndipo zimachotsedwa mosavuta.(Monga phindu lowonjezera, kuchotsa bwino chip kumathandiza kuonjezera moyo wa chida.)
Nthawi zambiri, malo opangira makina oyimirira amakhala ofala kwambiri chifukwa amatha kukhala amphamvu ngati malo opangira makina opingasa ndipo amatha kugwira tizigawo tating'ono kwambiri.Kuphatikiza apo, malo oyimirira ali ndi gawo laling'ono kuposa malo opingasa makina.

Multi-axis CNC mphero
Malo opangira mphero a Precision CNC akupezeka ndi nkhwangwa zingapo.Chigayo cha 3-axis chimagwiritsa ntchito ma axes a X, Y, ndi Z pa ntchito zosiyanasiyana.Ndi mphero ya 4-axis, makinawo amatha kuzungulira pamtunda wowongoka ndi wopingasa ndikusuntha chogwirira ntchito kuti alole makina opitilirabe.
Mphero ya 5-axis ili ndi nkhwangwa zitatu zachikhalidwe ndi nkhwangwa ziwiri zowonjezera zozungulira, zomwe zimathandiza kuti chogwirira ntchito chizizunguliridwa pamene mutu wa spindle umayenda mozungulira.Izi zimathandiza mbali zisanu za workpiece kuti makina popanda kuchotsa workpiece ndi resetting makina.

Zithunzi za CNC
Lathe - yomwe imatchedwanso malo otembenukira - imakhala ndi nkhwangwa imodzi kapena zingapo, X ndi Z.Makinawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pozungulira chogwirira ntchito pa olamulira ake kuti achite ntchito zosiyanasiyana zodulira ndi kupanga, kugwiritsa ntchito zida zambiri zogwirira ntchito.
CNC lathes, amene amatchedwanso moyo kanthu tooling lathes, ndi abwino kupanga symmetrical cylindrical kapena ozungulira mbali.Monga CNC mphero, CNC lathes angathe kugwira ntchito zing'onozing'ono ngati prototyping koma akhoza kukhazikitsidwa kwa repeatability mkulu, kuthandiza mkulu voliyumu kupanga.
CNC lathes amathanso kukhazikitsidwa kuti azipanga zopanda manja, zomwe zimawapangitsa kuti azigwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'mafakitale amagalimoto, zamagetsi, zamlengalenga, zama robotic, ndi zida zamankhwala.

Momwe lathe ya CNC imagwirira ntchito
Ndi CNC lathe, bala yopanda kanthu ya masheya imakwezedwa mu chuck wa spindle ya lathe.Chuck iyi imagwira chogwirira ntchito pamalo pomwe spindle ikuzungulira.Spindle ikafika pa liwiro lofunikira, chida chodulira choyima chimalumikizidwa ndi chogwirira ntchito kuti chichotse zinthu ndikukwaniritsa geometry yolondola.
CNC lathe imatha kugwira ntchito zingapo, monga kubowola, ulusi, wotopetsa, kubwezeretsanso, kuyang'ana, ndi kutembenuza taper.Zochita zosiyanasiyana zimafuna kusintha kwa zida ndipo zimatha kuwonjezera mtengo ndi nthawi yokhazikitsa.
Pamene ntchito zonse zofunikira za makina zikatha, gawolo limadulidwa kuchokera ku katundu kuti lipitirize kukonzanso, ngati kuli kofunikira.The CNC lathe ndiye wokonzeka kubwereza opareshoni, ndi pang'ono kapena palibe nthawi yowonjezera yowonjezereka yomwe nthawi zambiri imafunika pakati.
CNC lathes amathanso kukhala ndi ma feeders osiyanasiyana odziwikiratu, omwe amachepetsa kuchuluka kwa zinthu zopangira pamanja ndikupereka zabwino monga izi:
■ Chepetsani nthawi ndi mphamvu zomwe zimafunikira kwa wogwiritsa ntchito makina
■ Thandizani barstock kuti muchepetse kugwedezeka komwe kungasokoneze kulondola
■ Lolani chida cha makina kuti chizigwira ntchito mothamanga kwambiri
■ Chepetsani nthawi zosintha
■ Kuchepetsa kuwononga zinthu

Mitundu ya CNC lathes
Pali mitundu ingapo ya lathes, koma zofala kwambiri ndi 2-olamulira CNC lathes ndi China kalembedwe basi lathes.
Ambiri CNC China lathes ntchito imodzi kapena ziwiri zazikulu spindles kuphatikiza chimodzi kapena ziwiri kumbuyo (kapena sekondale) spindles, ndi rotary kutengerapo udindo wakale.Spindle yayikulu imagwira ntchito yopangira makina, mothandizidwa ndi bushing lowongolera.
Kuphatikiza apo, ma lathes ena aku China amabwera ali ndi mutu wachiwiri wa chida womwe umagwira ntchito ngati mphero ya CNC.
Ndi CNC China-style lathe automatic, katunduyo amadyetsedwa kudzera pamutu wopondera kupita ku bushing.Izi zimathandiza kuti chidacho chidulire zinthuzo pafupi ndi mfundo yomwe zinthuzo zimathandizidwa, zomwe zimapangitsa makina a China kukhala opindulitsa kwambiri kwa nthawi yayitali, yopyapyala komanso ya micromachining.
Malo otembenuzira a Multi-axis CNC ndi ma lathes amtundu waku China amatha kuchita ntchito zingapo zamakina pogwiritsa ntchito makina amodzi.Izi zimawapangitsa kukhala njira yotsika mtengo kwa ma geometries ovuta omwe angafune makina angapo kapena kusintha zida pogwiritsa ntchito zida monga mphero yachikhalidwe ya CNC.

MUKUFUNA KUGWIRA NTCHITO NAFE?